L’effetto degli stili decisionali e dell’ansia genitoriale sulla percezione delle paure infantili: uno studio pilota

  • Martina Messina
  • Rossella De Falco
  • Genoveffa Amore
  • Teresa Capparelli
  • Silvia Dell'Orco
  • Carmen Giannetti
  • Claudia Langella
  • Benedetta Muzii
  • Rita Scognamiglio
  • Tilde Annunziato

Abstract

Background. Emotional experiences are essential for  psychophysical development of children. Many factors are involved in this process: socio-cultural environment, relationships, parental behaviour and  more. Caregivers play a crucial role in the development process of their children, as much as their ability to make a choice and to deal with children’s emotions [15]. A detailed review of relevant scientific literature reveals a research gap in the field of children’s fears, compared to parental anxiety and decision-making styles. This gap needs to be tackled in order to improve understanding of childhood fears. Aims. The pilot study investigate the correlation between caregivers’ trait anxiety and decision-making styles, to explore in depth their perception of children fears. Methods. Sample includes parents of three-to-ten-year-old children (n = 288), both mothers and fathers. Participants submitted online replies to three psychological tools: General Decision Making Style (GDSM), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Y Form (STAI-Y), Fear Survey for Children Revised – Parents Version (FSSCR-P). Results. Statistical analyses show a significant correlation between Trait Anxiety and Dependent decision-making style (r = .347). Statistically significant correlation was also noted between Trait Anxiety and Avoidant decision-making style (r = .373). Furthermore, anxiety can affect parents perception of children fear of unknown (F(1,25) = 9,22; p < .05) and it is predictive (β = .185; p < .05) of parents perception of children fear of failure and criticism. Then, Dependent decision-making style is predictive (β = .18; p <.05) of parental perception of children fear of abandonment. Conclusions. Looking at the family system and parental relationships represents an essential step for research in the field of development psychology, in order to understand childhood fears. Future studies need to involve a wider sample, including both caregivers and children. Finally, testing new hypothesis could lead to new psychotherapeutic treatment and experience in the perspective of integrated Gestalt therapy.

Keywords: Decision-making Style, Anxiety, Childhood fears, GDMS, STAI, FSSC-P

Abstract in italiano

Background. I vissuti emotivi in età evolutiva hanno un ruolo nevralgico nello sviluppo psicofisico. In tale processo si intersecano una moltitudine di fattori: l’ambiente di crescita e le relazioni che lo caratterizzano hanno un ruolo molto importante, che si espleta attraverso i caregivers e la loro capacità di gestire gli stati affettivi e le proprie decisioni[15]. Dall’analisi della letteratura scientifica, emerge un gap nella ricerca sulle paure infantili in relazione agli stati d’ansia e agli stili decisionali dei genitori. Obiettivi. Questo lavoro intende esplorare la correlazione tra le paure dei bambini in età scolare, l’ansia di tratto e gli stili decisionali dei genitori, nonché la percezione che questi hanno degli stati d’ansia dei propri figli. Metodo. Il campione è composto da genitori di bambini di età compresa tra i 3 e i 10 anni (n = 288). Ai partecipanti, previo consenso informato, si è richiesta la compilazione tramite questionario online dei  seguenti reattivi psicologici: General Decision Making Style (GDSM), State- Trait Anxiety Inventory – Y Form (STAI-Y), Fear Survey for Children Revised – Parents Version (FSSCR-P). Risultati. I risultati evidenziano che l’Ansia di Tratto correla con lo Stile decisionale Dipendente (r = .347) e con lo Stile decisionale Evitante (r = .373) nei caregivers. Inoltre, il livello di ansia influisce in modo significativo (F(1,25) = 9,22; p < .05) sulla percezione della paura infantile dell’ignoto ed è un predittore (β = .185; p < .05) della percezione della paura del fallimento e delle critiche. Lo Stile decisionale Dipendente è un predittore della possibilità che i genitori percepiscano la paura dell’abbandono dei figli (β = .18; p < .05). Conclusioni. La complessità del sistema familiare, e le relazioni che ne intercorrono, sono fattori imprescindibili per la ricerca scientifica e per la comprensione dei fenomeni che interessano l’infanzia, come le paure dei bambini e la responsività dei genitori. Possibili sviluppi futuri includono la possibilità di approfondire l’indagine, coinvolgendo un campione più ampio che includa anche i bambini, e, sulla base di questi risultati, nuove esperienze psicoterapeutiche per la sperimentazione di un’ipotesi di trattamento a orientamento gestaltico integrato.

Parole chiave: Stile decisionale, ansia, paure infantili, GDMS, STAI, FSSC-P

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Pubblicato
2021-04-01
Come citare
Messina, M., De Falco, R., Amore, G., Capparelli, T., Dell’Orco, S., Giannetti, C., Langella, C., Muzii, B., Scognamiglio, R., & Annunziato, T. (2021). L’effetto degli stili decisionali e dell’ansia genitoriale sulla percezione delle paure infantili: uno studio pilota. Phenomena Journal - Giornale Internazionale Di Psicopatologia, Neuroscienze E Psicoterapia, 3(1), 44 - 55. https://doi.org/10.32069/pj.2021.1.111
Sezione
Ricerca originale

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